Subsistence Strategies in Malaysia

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Subsistence Strategies in Malaysia

CHAPTER 18: STIMULANT DRUGS

STUDENT NAME

INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATION

Stimulants are often classified as substances usually drugs that affect the normal functioning of the body. Stimulant drugs catalyze the neuron messaging that speed up the reaction between the body and the brain. These drugs enhance the alertness and energy level of an individual (Gawin & Ellinwood Jr,1988). While these drugs were developed for medical purposes they are usually abused in various instances. At times these stimulant drugs are referred to as uppers as they increase levels of alertness and energy. The essay seeks to look into the prescription of stimulants such as Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine. How they affect the body and how the addictions can be treated.

Stimulant drugs are usually prescribed in the form of capsules and tablets that when abused are swallowed or even in liquid form are usually injected as others are crushed and snorted. Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine are among the most commonly abused drugs in the streets. These drugs make boosts the confidence of individuals making them more energetic and alert as they feel more awake (Gawin & Ellinwood Jr,1988). These drugs are legally prescribed such as amphetamines while some are illegal such as cocaine and nicotine. Whilst the illegal drugs are being injected, crashed to be snorted, swallowed and smoked, as the legally prescribed stimulant drugs are orally absorbed although their effects depend on the type of drugs used (Gawin & Ellinwood Jr,1988).

Amphetamines are mostly legal stimulant drugs prescribed by doctors in order to treat conditions such as the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and the sleep disorder narcolepsy. The Parkinson disease has also used amphetamines stimulant as a form of treatment (Baroni & Castellanos,2015). Other forms of amphetamine are often sold and produced illegally such as crystal methamphetamine commonly referred to as ice. Caffeine also a form of a stimulant drug that was obtained from coffee arabica, cola, cocoa and tea. The amount of caffeine used is regulated by food regulation standing committee. Consumptions of a large amount of caffeine are taken it could amount to an overdose that one may be characterized by experiencing as tremor, nausea, high heart rate, confusion or even seizures (Baroni & Castellanos,2015).

Cocaine is a type of stimulant drug that is usually extracted from coca bush and processed through three different forms. That is the cocaine hydrochloride, free base and crack it is used as crack. This stimulant is usually snorted although it can be injected, rubbed and even added to drinks or food. Nicotine is commonly used in other substances such as cigarettes, tobaccos, cigars and even dry snuff that are obtained from leaves of the tobacco plant that usually contain nicotine. This stimulant is usually smoked (Munro, Marraccini & Oster,2017).

The common use of drugs is often advised to be carefully administered as no levels of drug use or abuse are safe as there is always a risk in the use of drugs. The effects of these stimulants affect individuals irregardless of their size, weight and health. The addition of an individual, how much is consumed and the strength of the stimulant. The affected individuals have affected show signs of mild stimulation, coughing on use of stimulated that can be smoked, confusion, seizures among other feelings of pleasures confidence and happiness (Munro, Marraccini & Oster,2017). The giving up on substances such nicotine causes the development of withdrawal symptoms such as cravings, irritability or even depression.

When taken in combination of alcohol stimulant used can be dangerous. They can not be allowed to be used by persons with depression, mental problem or even preexisting heart conditions. Continuous use of stimulants creates a dependence on them and tolerance with its effects. This dependence could be psychological or even physical. The individuals crave for the drugs as they become more addicted to them valuing them than the other life activities (Munro, Marraccini & Oster,2017). This urge with time often becomes more difficult to control and use them. Abstinence and initiation are recommended form of treating the overdependence on stimulants with modafinil medication being a promising treatment for abstinence of the treatment such as narcolepsy with propranolol shows promise for severe cocaine symptoms with considerations of possible relapse (Munro, Marraccini & Oster,2017).

References

Baroni, A., & Castellanos, F. X. (2015). Stimulants, cognition and ADHD. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 109-114.

Gawin, F. H., & Ellinwood Jr, E. H. (1988). Cocaine and other stimulants. New England Journal of Medicine, 318(18), 1173-1182.

Munro, B. A., Weyandt, L. L., Marraccini, M. E., & Oster, D. R. (2017). The relationship between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants, executive functioning and academic outcomes. Addictive behaviors, 65, 250-257.

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