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Section 1: Understand Quantitative Research Designs: Locate a standardized measurement instrument used in your specialization or area of interest, and then complete an evaluation of the instrument as described below

Quantitative research primarily employs the use of numerical data involving basic descriptive and inferential statistical analyses to address null and alternative hypotheses. The goal is often to conclude if a significant or non-significant effect, difference, or relationship exists for generalizing conclusions from a sample to a larger related population with a minimal amount of error.

This course is designed to provide you with the knowledge needed to understand and apply different quantitative research designs to develop a framework for a rigorous and valid quantitative study. The major quantitative designs of correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental will be addressed in this course. To promote validity within the results of the study, the quantitative design utilized should accurately address the problem that prompts the research, the purpose of the research, the research questions, and corresponding hypotheses. The parameters of the data, the availability, and feasibility of the participants and circumstances, and the capabilities of the researchers must all be considered when determining the final quantitative design to be used. The focus of Section 1 is on the basics of quantitative methodology and design.

The goal of this course is to ensure that you develop a firm understanding of the critical elements and framework supporting a quality aligned quantitative study so that you can later apply research design principles for your own research. During this course, take time to explore the quantitative approach and each corresponding design’s potential applicability to your dissertation methodology. Course assignments are not intended to result in a completed dissertation methodology; rather, this course offers you the opportunity to develop a strong foundation in quantitative design and examine possible quantitative approaches.

During this course, you will be reviewing many previously published NCU quantitative dissertations to give you the idea of where all of this is headed as you enter the dissertation phase of your journey. Take a moment to make sure you know how to locate NCU dissertations in via the NCU Library.

Critique Standardized Measurement Instruments

An instrument in research is the term for the measurement device a researcher uses (Hoy & Adams, 2016). Common measurement instruments are surveys, tests, questionnaires, and interview protocols (which means the set of interview questions the researcher plans to use).

Quantitative measurement instruments often produce numerical values from assessments, rating scales, historical data, document reviews, among others, measuring various constructs and variables. Whenever available, existing previously validated instruments should be employed to measure a construct or variable, rather than developing new instruments requiring the implementation of various strategies to determine appropriate measurement validity and reliability. Especially for new researchers including students, using a previously validated measurement instrument saves time and resources and improves the efficiency and accuracy of conducting research.


Figure 4.
 Research designs.

Be sure to review this week’s resources carefully. You are expected to apply the information from these resources when you prepare your assignments.

Reference

Hoy, W., & Adams, C. (2016). Quantitative research in education: A primer.   Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Using Research Instruments : A Guide for Researchers by Peter Birmingham  and David Wilkinson  

https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ncent-ebooks/detail.action?docID=181843Top of Form

Locate a standardized measurement instrument used in your specialization or area of interest, and then complete an evaluation of the instrument as described below. There are a few different ways to locate a measurement instrument with published psychometrics.

Use the information found in the LibGuide in this week’s Resources to locate a test instrument by one of these three methods:

  1. Use the Roadrunner Search to identify a measurement instrument used in a peer-reviewed study you have read, and then use the reference list to find its origin.
  2. Use one of the Library databases listed in the guide to identify a test instrument.
  3. Try searching for a commercially published test or measurement or information about them on the Internet.

The standardized measurement instrument used in the critique must be located from a scholarly source containing validity and reliability information. Use the measurement template below to create a presentation sharing your critique.

Length: 6 slides, not including title and reference slides; each slide should include 150-200 words of speaker notes

References: Include a minimum of 1 reference (cite the source where you located the measurement instrument).

Locate a measurement instrument with published psychometrics

Use one of the Library databases listed in the guide to identify a test instrument

Locate a standardized measurement instrument used in your specialization or area of interest, and then complete an evaluation of the instrument as described below. There are a few different ways to locate a measurement instrument with published psychometrics.

Use the information found in the LibGuide in this week’s Resources to locate a test instrument by one of these three methods:

  1. Use the Roadrunner Search to identify a measurement instrument used in a peer-reviewed study you have read, and then use the reference list to find its origin.
  2. Use one of the Library databases listed in the guide to identify a test instrument.
  3. Try searching for a commercially published test or measurement or information about them on the Internet.

The standardized measurement instrument used in the critique must be located from a scholarly source containing validity and reliability information. Use the measurement template below to create a presentation sharing your critique.

Length: 6 slides, not including title and reference slides; each slide should include 150-200 words of speaker notes

References: Include a minimum of 1 reference (cite the source where you located the measurement instrument).

Do you think cryptocurrency has been used to commit financial fraud?

1. Do you think cryptocurrency has been used to commit financial fraud?

2. In your opinion, is cryptocurrency regulation needed?

3. Do you think cryptocurrency will be an important form of currency in the future? 

4. In your opinion, is cryptocurrency a tool for tax avoidance, money laundering, and bribery?

5. Do you think crypto investments also be used as Ponzi scheme (A standard Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment scheme in which an operator pays returns on investments from capital derived from new investors, rather than from legitimate investment profits).?

6. Do you think the use of cryptocurrency has tax consequences that could result in tax liability?

7. In your opinion should virtual currency be classified as property?

8. Do you think taxpayers may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with cryptocurrency tax laws?

9. Do you think cryptocurrency should be used as a global currency?

10. Cryptocurrency is a legal tender in El Salvador. Do you think this is a good idea for countries that do not utilize their own currency?

Develop an evaluation plan to assess the feasibility and potential impact of the one-year residence policy.

Thoroughly respond to each prompt below. Apply APA style citations and references. The use of the course textbook as a reference is required. Additional scholarly resources of your choosing may also be used.

1. Define evaluation and discuss four reasons why organizations conduct program evaluations.

2. Your text organizes theoretical approaches to evaluation according to five categories

(1) expertise, (2) consumer, (3) program (4) decision and (5) participant oriented. Generally, discuss (compare and contrast) how these five approaches differ with regards to their purpose, benefits, and limitations please do not simply reproduce the comparative analysis from the textbook.

3. A local city wanted to implement a community policing project designed to help at risk children. The goals were to have the children develop a sense of responsibility, and vision occupational roles, recognize the relationship between education and finding a good job, and hold positive images of police officers. The children were from 11 to 15 and were nominated by school counselors from schools within the most disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Develop an evaluation plan to assist the city in developing and evaluating a program. Be sure to include: (1) the general approach to evaluation you would take, (2) the questions you would ask to guide your evaluation, (3) the individuals and/or groups (if any) from whom you would gather information, (4) what type of information you would collect and (5) your decision-making process.

4. Frustration with high recidivism rates of released prisoners has led to experiments with alternative approaches to sentence sing those convicted of certain crimes one such approach is a military style boot camp with rigorous physical regimens and austere living conditions. the programs are funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide offenders with a sense of discipline and respect for authority and those completing the program qualify for an early release. the cost of running these camps is less than the cost of incarceration.

NIJ J is interested in a multi-site evaluation plan focusing on the societal impacts of the program. be sure to include 1) the general approach to the evaluation you would take, 2) The questions you were asked to guide your evaluation, 3) the individuals and or groups if any from whom you would gather information, 4) what types of information you would collect, and 5) your decision-making process.

5. Faculty and administrators in your doctoral degree program or explored the possibility of requiring graduate students to spend one year of their program in residence at the university. The goal of this requirement is to enhance the quality of the graduate experience and provide doctoral students with the opportunities to work closely with faculty on research and writing activities doctoral students would be considered research assistance during this phase and will receive a modest stipend and tuition remission for six courses. However, for many doctoral students the one-year residence requirement would mean a significant cut in their current salary.

Develop an evaluation plan to assess the feasibility and potential impact of the one-year residence policy. Be sure to include: (1) the general approach to evaluation you would take, (2) the questions you would ask to guide your evaluation, (3) the individuals and/or groups (if any) from whom you would gather information, (4) what type of information you would collect and (5) your decision-making process.

6. Please provide a brief example of something that you’ve learned in this class about program evaluation (anything from chapters 1 – 10 of the textbook) that you could apply to your current work experience (high school teacher).

Link to textbook: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1lccOfRq7FcnwpaglAiNN9J8MQaWFU6wF/view?usp=sharing

Write one page (double spaced) paper describing and discussing developments in middle childhood as you learned about in Unit 10

Write one page (double spaced) paper describing and discussing developments in middle childhood as you learned about in Unit 10. You may focus on one theory or many. Pay specific attention to cognitive, social, emotional and moral development in the context of behavior and personality development. Please use the psychological terms discussed throughout the unit in your writing. The goal of this assignment is to learn about development in middle childhood that can then be put to use in the classes’ final project. (Learning Outcome 3)

Define evaluation and discuss four reasons why organizations conduct program evaluations.

Thoroughly respond to each prompt below. Apply APA style citations and references. The use of the course textbook as a reference is required. Additional scholarly resources of your choosing may also be used.

1. Define evaluation and discuss four reasons why organizations conduct program evaluations.

2. Your text organizes theoretical approaches to evaluation according to five categories

(1) expertise, (2) consumer, (3) program (4) decision and (5) participant oriented. Generally, discuss (compare and contrast) how these five approaches differ with regards to their purpose, benefits, and limitations please do not simply reproduce the comparative analysis from the textbook.

3. A local city wanted to implement a community policing project designed to help at risk children. The goals were to have the children develop a sense of responsibility, and vision occupational roles, recognize the relationship between education and finding a good job, and hold positive images of police officers. The children were from 11 to 15 and were nominated by school counselors from schools within the most disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Develop an evaluation plan to assist the city in developing and evaluating a program. Be sure to include: (1) the general approach to evaluation you would take, (2) the questions you would ask to guide your evaluation, (3) the individuals and/or groups (if any) from whom you would gather information, (4) what type of information you would collect and (5) your decision-making process.

4. Frustration with high recidivism rates of released prisoners has led to experiments with alternative approaches to sentence sing those convicted of certain crimes one such approach is a military style boot camp with rigorous physical regimens and austere living conditions. the programs are funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide offenders with a sense of discipline and respect for authority and those completing the program qualify for an early release. the cost of running these camps is less than the cost of incarceration.

NIJ J is interested in a multi-site evaluation plan focusing on the societal impacts of the program. be sure to include 1) the general approach to the evaluation you would take, 2) The questions you were asked to guide your evaluation, 3) the individuals and or groups if any from whom you would gather information, 4) what types of information you would collect, and 5) your decision-making process.

5. Faculty and administrators in your doctoral degree program or explored the possibility of requiring graduate students to spend one year of their program in residence at the university. The goal of this requirement is to enhance the quality of the graduate experience and provide doctoral students with the opportunities to work closely with faculty on research and writing activities doctoral students would be considered research assistance during this phase and will receive a modest stipend and tuition remission for six courses. However, for many doctoral students the one-year residence requirement would mean a significant cut in their current salary.

Develop an evaluation plan to assess the feasibility and potential impact of the one-year residence policy. Be sure to include: (1) the general approach to evaluation you would take, (2) the questions you would ask to guide your evaluation, (3) the individuals and/or groups (if any) from whom you would gather information, (4) what type of information you would collect and (5) your decision-making process.

6. Please provide a brief example of something that you’ve learned in this class about program evaluation (anything from chapters 1 – 10 of the textbook) that you could apply to your current work experience (high school teacher).

Link to textbook: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1lccOfRq7FcnwpaglAiNN9J8MQaWFU6wF/view?usp=sharing

After configuring each host computer, record the host network settings with the ipconfig /all command.

Scenario

It is time for you to take on the Moscovium Network Consulting project you have been building towards. This project will require you to configure five devices in a small network. Specifically, you must configure a router, switch and PCs to support IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity for supported hosts. Your router and switch must also be managed securely. You will configure inter-VLAN routing, DHCP, Etherchannel, and port-security.

Assessment Objectives

Part 1: Initialize, Reload and Configure Basic Device Settings

Part 2: Configure Network Infrastructure Settings (VLANs, Trunking, Etherchannel)

Part 3: Configure Host Support

Part 4: Test and Verify IPv4 and IPv6 End-to-End Connectivity

Packet Tracer Required Resources

  • 1 Router (Cisco 4321)
  • 2 Switches (Cisco 2960)
  • 2 PCs
  • Ethernet cables as shown in the topology

VLAN Table

VLANVLAN Name
2Bikes
3Trikes
4Management
5Parking
6Native

Addressing Table

Device / InterfaceIP Address / PrefixDefault Gateway
R1 G0/0/1.210.19.8.1 /26N/A
R1 G0/0/1.22001:db8:acad:a::1 /64N/A
R1 G0/0/1.310.19.8.65 /27N/A
R1 G0/0/1.32001:db8:acad:b::1 /64N/A
R1 G0/0/1.410.19.8.97 /29N/A
R1 G0/0/1.42001:db8:acad:c::1 /64N/A
R1 G0/0/1.6N/AN/A
R1 Loopback0209.165.201.1 /27N/A
R1 Loopback02001:db8:acad:209::1 /64N/A
S1 VLAN 410.19.8.98 /2910.19.8.97
S1 VLAN 42001:db8:acad:c::98 /64N/A
S1 VLAN 4fe80::98N/A
S2 VLAN 410.19.8.99 /2910.19.8.97
S2 VLAN 42001:db8:acad:c::99 /64N/A
S2 VLAN 4fe80::99N/A
PC-A NICDHCP for IPv4 addressDHCP for IPv4 default gateway
PC-A NIC2001:db8:acad:a::50 /64fe80::1
PC-B NICDHCP for IPv4 addressDHCP for IPv4 default gateway
PC-B NIC2001:db8:acad:b::50 /64fe80::1

Note: There is no interface on the router supporting VLAN 5.

Instructions

Part 1: Initialize, Reload and Configure Basic Device Settings

Step 1: Initialize and reload router and switch.

  • Erase the startup configurations and VLANs from the router and switch and reload the devices.
  • After the switch is reloaded, configure the SDM template to support IPv6 as needed, and reload the switch again.
  • Before proceeding, have your instructor verify device initializations.

Step 2: Configure R1.

Configuration tasks for R1 include the following:

TaskSpecification
Disable DNS lookup 
Router nameR1
Domain nameccna-lab.com
Encrypted privileged EXEC passwordciscoenpass
Console access passwordciscoconpass
Set the minimum length for passwords10 characters
Create an administrative user in the local databaseUsername: admin Password: admin1pass
Set login on VTY lines to use local database 
Set VTY lines to accept SSH connections only 
Encrypt the clear text passwords 
Configure an MOTD Banner 
Enable IPv6 Routing 
Configure Interface G0/0/1 and sub interfacesSet the description Set the IPv4 address Set the IPv6 Link Local Address as fe80::1 Set the IPv6 address Activate Interface
Configure the Loopback0 interfaceSet the description Set the IPv4 address Set the IPv6 address Set the IPv6 Link Local Address as fe80::1
Generate an RSA crypto key1024 bits modulus

Step 3: Configure S1 and S2.

Configuration tasks for the switches include the following:

TaskSpecification
Disable DNS lookup 
Switch nameS1 or S2, as appropriate
Domain nameccna-lab.com
Encrypted privileged EXEC passwordciscoenpass
Console access passwordciscoconpass
Create an administrative user in the local databaseUsername: admin Password: admin1pass
Set login on VTY lines to use local database 
Set VTY lines to accept SSH connections only 
Encrypt the clear text passwords 
Configure an MOTD Banner 
Generate an RSA crypto key1024 bits modulus
Configure Management Interface (SVI)Set the Layer 3 IPv4 address Set the Ipv6 Link Local Address as FE80::98 for S1 and FE80::99 for S2 Set the Layer 3 IPv6 address
Configure Default GatewayConfigure the default gateway as 10.19.8.97 for IPv4

Part 2: Configure Network Infrastructure Settings (VLANs, Trunking, EtherChannel)

Step 1: Configure S1.

Configuration tasks for S1 include the following:

TaskSpecification
Create VLANsVLAN 2, name Bikes VLAN 3, name Trikes VLAN 4, name Management VLAN 5, name Parking VLAN 6, name Native
Create 802.1Q trunks that use the native VLAN 6Interfaces F0/1, F0/2, and F0/5
Create a Layer 2 EtherChannel port group that uses interfaces F0/1 and F0/2Use the LACP protocol for negotiation
Configure host access port for VLAN 2Interface F0/6
Configure port-security on access portsAllow 3 MAC addresses
Secure all unused interfacesAssign to VLAN 5, Set to access mode, add a description, and shutdown

Step 2: Configure S2.

Configuration tasks for S2 include the following:

TaskSpecification
Create VLANsVLAN 2, name Bikes VLAN 3, name Trikes VLAN 4, name Management VLAN 5, name Parking VLAN 6, name Native
Create 802.1Q trunks that use the native VLAN 6Interfaces F0/1 and F0/2
Create a Layer 2 EtherChannel port group that uses interfaces F0/1 and F0/2Use the LACP protocol for negotiation
Configure host access port for VLAN 3Interface F0/18
Configure port-security on access portsAllow 3 MAC addresses
Secure all unused interfacesAssign to VLAN 5, Set to access mode, add a description, and shutdown

Part 3: Configure Host Support

Step 1: Configure R1

Configuration Tasks for R1 include the following

TaskSpecification
Configure Default RoutingCreate a default routes for IPv4 and IPv6 that direct traffic to interface Loopback 0
Configure IPv4 DHCP for VLAN 2Create a DHCP pool for VLAN 2, consisting of the last 10 addresses in the subnet only. Assign the domain name ccna-a.net and specify the default gateway address as the router interface address for the subnet involved
Configure IPv4 DHCP for VLAN 3Create a DHCP pool for VLAN 3, consisting of the last 10 addresses in the subnet only. Assign the domain name ccna-b.net and specify the default gateway address as the router interface address for the subnet involved

Step 2: Configure host computers.

Configure the host computers PC-A and PC-B to use DHCP for IPv4 and statically assign the IPv6 GUA and Link Local addresses. After configuring each host computer, record the host network settings with the ipconfig /all command.

PC-A Network Configuration (2 points)
Descriptionblank
Physical Addressblank
IP Addressblank
Subnet Maskblank
Default Gatewayblank
IPv6 Default Gatewayblank
PC-B Network Configuration (2 points)
Descriptionblank
Physical Addressblank
IP Addressblank
Subnet Maskblank
Default Gatewayblank
IPv6 Default Gatewayblank

Part 4: Test and Verify End-to-End Connectivity

Use the ping command to test IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity between all network devices.

Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall and retest.

Use the following table to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails:

FromToProtocolIP AddressPing Results
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.2IPv410.19.8.1blank
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.2IPv62001:db8:acad:a::1blank
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.3IPv410.19.8.65blank
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.3IPv62001:db8:acad:b::1blank
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.4IPv410.19.8.97blank
PC-AR1, G0/0/1.4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::1blank
PC-AS1, VLAN 4IPv410.19.8.98blank
PC-AS1, VLAN 4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::98blank
PC-AS2, VLAN 4IPv410.19.8.99.blank
PC-AS2, VLAN 4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::99blank
PC-APC-BIPv4IP address will vary.blank
PC-APC-BIPv62001:db8:acad:b::50blank
PC-AR1 Loop0IPv4209.165.201.1blank
PC-AR1 Loop0IPv62001:db8:acad:209::1blank
PC-BR1 Loop0IPv4209.165.201.1blank
PC-BR1 Loop0IPv62001:db8:acad:209::1blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.2IPv410.19.8.1blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.2IPv62001:db8:acad:a::1blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.3IPv410.19.8.65blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.3IPv62001:db8:acad:b::1blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.4IPv410.19.8.97blank
PC-BR1, G0/0/1.4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::1blank
PC-BS1, VLAN 4IPv410.19.8.98blank
PC-BS1, VLAN 4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::98blank
PC-BS2, VLAN 4IPv410.19.8.99.blank
PC-BS2, VLAN 4IPv62001:db8:acad:c::99blank

Part 5: Cleanup

NOTE: DO NOT PROCEED WITH CLEANUP UNTIL YOUR INSTRUCTOR HAS GRADED YOUR SKILLS EXAM AND HAS INFORMED YOU THAT YOU MAY BEGIN CLEANUP.

Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers.

Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration files (if saved) from both devices.

Disconnect and neatly put away all LAN cables that were used in the Final.

Router Interface Summary Table

Router ModelEthernet Interface #1Ethernet Interface #2Serial Interface #1Serial Interface #2
1800Fast Ethernet 0/0 (F0/0)Fast Ethernet 0/1 (F0/1)Serial 0/0/0 (S0/0/0)Serial 0/0/1 (S0/0/1)
1900Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 (G0/0)Gigabit Ethernet 0/1 (G0/1)Serial 0/0/0 (S0/0/0)Serial 0/0/1 (S0/0/1)
2801Fast Ethernet 0/0 (F0/0)Fast Ethernet 0/1 (F0/1)Serial 0/1/0 (S0/1/0)Serial 0/1/1 (S0/1/1)
2811Fast Ethernet 0/0 (F0/0)Fast Ethernet 0/1 (F0/1)Serial 0/0/0 (S0/0/0)Serial 0/0/1 (S0/0/1)
2900Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 (G0/0)Gigabit Ethernet 0/1 (G0/1)Serial 0/0/0 (S0/0/0)Serial 0/0/1 (S0/0/1)
4221Gigabit Ethernet 0/0/0 (G0/0/0)Gigabit Ethernet 0/0/1 (G0/0/1)Serial 0/1/0 (S0/1/0)Serial 0/1/1 (S0/1/1)
4300Gigabit Ethernet 0/0/0 (G0/0/0)Gigabit Ethernet 0/0/1 (G0/0/1)Serial 0/1/0 (S0/1/0)Serial 0/1/1 (S0/1/1)

Note: To find out how the router is configured, look at the interfaces to identify the type of router and how many interfaces the router has. There is no way to effectively list all the combinations of configurations for each router class. This table includes identifiers for the possible combinations of Ethernet and Serial interfaces in the device. The table does not include any other type of interface, even though a specific router may contain one. An example of this might be an ISDN BRI interface. The string in parenthesis is the legal abbreviation that can be used in Cisco IOS commands to represent the interface.

End of document

Cisco Switching and Routing Fundamentals: When you run the command “show vlan brief” on SW1 how many VLANs are listed in the output?

When you run the command “show vlan brief” on SW1 how many VLANs are listed in the output?

Why do you need to configure 802.1Q trunks on VLAN6 specifically? What would happen if you skipped this step?

What is the purpose of securing all unused ports by assigning them to VLAN5 and using the “shutdown” command?

Why does SW2 not implement the same 802.1Q trunking as SW1?

Why is it a good idea to implement the LACP protocol for negotiation on both SW1 and SW2?

What is the relationship between GPA and mandated GRE scores? (correlation)

Introduction

This study is meant to gauge the relevance ofthe Graduate Record Exam (GRE) as predictor of graduate school performance. The controversy is due to the belief among educators that the exam is a poor evaluator of undergraduate performance and therefore should be eliminated from the graduate school admissions process.

In order to analyze the data and define the relationship between the GRE and student degree completion the researcher will explore relationships between variables to determine the predictive relationship of the exam and make recommendation to the dean as to proceed with use of the GRE as a part of the graduate school admissions requirement because it is a significant indicator of graduate degree completion.

Analysis of the Effect of Graduate Record Exam (GRE) on Undergraduate Performance

The main objective of this study is to determine the relevance of Graduate Record Exam (GRE) as a determinant of undergraduate performance and graduate completion. This study will analyze the statistical relationship between gender, grade point average, GRE scores and frequency of graduate degree completion. 

For the study to be valid, the data the Dean has collected should have been collected in a statistically valid manner and should be large enough to approximate the true distribution of the population of graduate students. Parametric tests will be used; comparison testing, regression testing and correlation testing will be used. Further, we assume that the variables are not related, and is comparable among all groups in the study. This is normality and homogeneity necessary for nonparametric statistical testing.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

  1. What is the relationship between GPA and mandated GRE scores? (correlation)

Ho: There a non-significant relationship between GPA and GRE scores.

Ha: There is significant relationship between GPA scores and GRE scores.

The relationship between GPA & GRE scores compares two continuous variables. You would use the Pearson correlation and determine statistically the size of the correlation, its direction, and its level of statistical significance. For small, medium, and large correlations as r = |.20|, |.30|, and |.50|, respectively (the vertical bar is used to  “|” show an absolute value, which can be positive or negative). The Pearson correlation is a measure of the linear relationship. This fact does not imply that no other relationship exists between the two variables of GPA & GRE.

  • What is the effect of gender on GPA? (t-test)

Ho: There is a non-significant effect of gender on GPA..

      Ha: There is significant effect of gender on GPA.

      Gender and GPA are independent samples.

  • What is the relationship between gender, GPA and GRE scores? (linear regression)

Ho: There is a non-significant relationship between gender, GPA and GRE scores.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between gender, GPA and GRE scores.

  • What is the effect of gender, GPA and GRE scores on the frequency of degree completion?

Ho: Gender, GPA and GRE scores will have no significant effect on the frequency of graduate degree completion.

Ha: Gender GPA and GRE scores will have a significant effect on the frequency of graduate degree completion.

 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

COMARISON TESTS

A paired t-test will be used to compare the relationships between subsets of data. The t test tells you how significant the differences between groups are meaning, if those differences (measured in means) could have happened by chance. A t test compares the means of the two groups and lets  you know the probability of those results happening by chance. The relation betweenGRE scores and GPA scores will be tested using t-test test to determine whether the results have a significant or non-significant relationships. If the p value is greater than 0.05, we fail to reject HO and conclude that the GRE scores and GPA scores are similar.

Chi-Square Test

The Chi-Square test will show if the null hypothesis tests of  the data is as expected. The basic idea behind the test is to compare the observed values in your data to the expected values that you would see if the null hypothesis is true. The chi-square test will be used to support the notion that of whether there is a significant relationship between the sets of values. It assumes the data is random and independent. A low value for chisquare means there is a high correlation between the two sets of data.

CORRELATION TESTS

The bivariate Pearson Correlation test will produce a sample correlation coefficient, r, which will measure the strength and direction of linear relationships between pairs of continuous variables. This test will evaluate whether there is statistical evidence for a linear relationship among the same pairs of variables in the population which is represented by a population correlation coefficient, ρ (“rho”). The Pearson Correlation is a parametric measure which will be used to analyze the relationships and effects between the variables of GPA and GRE, gender and GPA, and gender and GRE.  The bivariate Pearson Correlation is commonly used to measure correlations among pairs of variables and within sets of variables. It indicates whether, a) a statistically significant linear relationship exists between two continuous variables, b) the strength of a linear relationship (i.e., how close the relationship is to being a perfectly straight line), and c) the direction of a linear relationship (increasing or decreasing) A calculated p value of less that .01 will indicate that the correlation is insignificant at 5%.  A calculated p value of -.500 indicates a moderate negative correlation, and a calculated p value of .006 or greater indicates a significant correlation at 1%.

LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS

An MANOVA linear regression analysis can be used to show persistence and effect between all variables. MANOVA can detect patterns between multiple dependent variables.  ANOVA statistically tests the differences between three or more group means. The analysis assumes a 2-way measure of relationships between the variables, the relationships are linear and the variables are drawn from normal population.  If the p value in the MANOVA is greater than 0.05, it will indicate that the regression coefficient is significant at 5%.  GPA, GRE and gender means will be measured to determine if each value has a significant effect on degree completion.

Test of Equality of Error Variance

The Laverne’s test of equality of error variance will test the assumption of homogeneity of variance between the variables and will test the null hypothesis between all mean scores.

CONCLUSIONS FOR THE STUDY

If the results indicate that there isweak and insignificant positive correlation between gender and GRE, a less than significant correlation between degree completion and GRE  and a non-significant positive correlation  between degree completion and GPA we can assume that the regression coefficient is insignificant.

The results of this study  would then  indicate that gender does not influence GRE scores, there is no difference between GRE scores and GPA scores and degree completion is not influence by GRE scores.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE STUDY

The study which agrees with the null hypothesis for each research question with non-significant results would lead to a recommendation to the dean of eliminating the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) as a measure for admission . Should the study agree with the alternative hypothesis, the recommendation would be that the GRE remain a tool used in the admissions process as a  predictor of the success of students.

Enter the data (below) into SPSS. Conduct an appropriate statistical analysis. Calculate the effect size.

Scenario: You have designed a new program to educate adult patients on healthy lifestyles. You want to know if there is an effect of your program on their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle as a result of your 2 weeks program. You have administered the Attitude Questionnaire to the group of patients before and after your program being implemented.

Task: Enter the data (below) into SPSS. Conduct an appropriate statistical analysis. Calculate the effect size. Report findings (including sample demographic characteristics) and your conclusion using APA format (providing output from the SPSS where appropriate).

IDGenderAgeScore1Score2
1Male24165223
2Female38209244
3Male45238229
4Female39228249
5Male21200262
6Male56234243
7Female62220242
8Male45239249
9Male52234243
10Female34222249
11Female55217218
12Male34180222
13Male36200247
14Male41233247
15Female54208198
16Male33216216
17Female22275259
18Prefer not to answer26232248
19Female51218240
20Prefer not to answer60280270
21Male37192193
22Male40226233
23Female44238277
24Female56234258
25Female55221255